Red Quasar Inhaltsverzeichnis
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This phase is potentially associated with young jets and strong winds, which ultimately drive away the obscuring dust.
Quasars were first observed 60 years ago, but their origins still remain a mystery. The conventional view of red quasars is that they are actually blue quasars that are angled away from our line-of-sight.
Instead, the Durham team has ruled this model out and have shown that red quasars are likely to be the result of a brief, but violent, phase in the evolution of galaxies when the black hole ejects a large amount of energy into the surrounding clouds of dust and gas.
This injection of energy blows away the dust and gas to reveal a blue quasar. Observations using radio telescopes support this theory by showing that black holes at the center of red quasars produce a greater amount of radio emission than those at the center of blue quasars.
Lead author Lizelke Klindt, a Ph. Red vs blue quasar: Red quasar: A brief transitional phase where the nascent quasar is enshrouded in gas and dust.
When viewed downward, these appear as blazars and often have regions that seem to move away from the center faster than the speed of light superluminal expansion.
This is an optical illusion due to the properties of special relativity. Quasar redshifts are measured from the strong spectral lines that dominate their visible and ultraviolet emission spectra.
These lines are brighter than the continuous spectrum. They exhibit Doppler broadening corresponding to mean speed of several percent of the speed of light.
Fast motions strongly indicate a large mass. Emission lines of hydrogen mainly of the Lyman series and Balmer series , helium, carbon, magnesium, iron and oxygen are the brightest lines.
The atoms emitting these lines range from neutral to highly ionized, leaving it highly charged. This wide range of ionization shows that the gas is highly irradiated by the quasar, not merely hot, and not by stars, which cannot produce such a wide range of ionization.
Like all unobscured active galaxies, quasars can be strong X-ray sources. Radio-loud quasars can also produce X-rays and gamma rays by inverse Compton scattering of lower-energy photons by the radio-emitting electrons in the jet.
Quasars also provide some clues as to the end of the Big Bang 's reionization. More recent quasars show no absorption region, but rather their spectra contain a spiky area known as the Lyman-alpha forest ; this indicates that the intergalactic medium has undergone reionization into plasma , and that neutral gas exists only in small clouds.
The intense production of ionizing ultraviolet radiation is also significant, as it would provide a mechanism for reionization to occur as galaxies form.
Quasars show evidence of elements heavier than helium , indicating that galaxies underwent a massive phase of star formation , creating population III stars between the time of the Big Bang and the first observed quasars.
Light from these stars may have been observed in using NASA 's Spitzer Space Telescope ,  although this observation remains to be confirmed.
The taxonomy of quasars includes various subtypes representing subsets of the quasar population having distinct properties.
Because quasars are extremely distant, bright, and small in apparent size, they are useful reference points in establishing a measurement grid on the sky.
Because they are so distant, they are apparently stationary to our current technology, yet their positions can be measured with the utmost accuracy by very-long-baseline interferometry VLBI.
The positions of most are known to 0. A grouping of two or more quasars on the sky can result from a chance alignment, where the quasars are not physically associated, from actual physical proximity, or from the effects of gravity bending the light of a single quasar into two or more images by gravitational lensing.
When two quasars appear to be very close to each other as seen from Earth separated by a few arcseconds or less , they are commonly referred to as a "double quasar".
When the two are also close together in space i. As quasars are overall rare objects in the universe, the probability of three or more separate quasars being found near the same physical location is very low, and determining whether the system is closely separated physically requires significant observational effort.
The first true triple quasar was found in by observations at the W. Keck Observatory Mauna Kea , Hawaii. When astronomers discovered the third member, they confirmed that the sources were separate and not the result of gravitational lensing.
A multiple-image quasar is a quasar whose light undergoes gravitational lensing , resulting in double, triple or quadruple images of the same quasar.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the astronomical object. For other uses, see Quasar disambiguation.
It is not to be confused with quasi-star. See also: Active galactic nucleus. Active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole. Main articles: Redshift , Metric expansion of space , and Universe.
Play media. Main articles: Reionization and Chronology of the Universe. Astronomy portal Space portal. ESO Science Release.
Retrieved 4 July Bibcode : Natur. ISBN Retrieved The Astrophysical Journal. Bibcode : ApJ The Astronomical Journal. Bibcode : AJ Retrieved 6 December Gemini Observatory.
The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Physics Today. Bibcode : PhT Archived from the original on The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
Bibcode : PASP.. Retrieved 3 October European Space Agency. Astrophysical Journal. Physics: Imagination and Reality.
Jodrell Bank Observatory. Shields The Discovery Of Quasars". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
Chandrasekhar Greenstein ; M. Schmidt Gray That's weird! Golden, Colo. Dordrecht: Springer. Bibcode : itaa. Energy Source". October The University of Alabama.
Jun 20, Science News. Retrieved 20 November Nature Astronomy. Bibcode : NatAs Astroparticle physics. Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology Illustrated ed.
Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 19 June Archived from the original PDF on December 17, Retrieved December 30, Archived from the original PDF on February 2, Retrieved July 1, Barthel Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 4 November Bouwens; et al.
The Nature of Cosmological Ionizing Source". Active Galactic Nuclei. Selection and Optical Properties of a Sample at 0.
ESO Press Release. Retrieved 13 July Naval Observatory Astronomical Applications. BBC News. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Bibcode : Sci Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Patrick; Heasley, J. Black holes. Gravitational singularity Ring singularity Theorems Event horizon Photon sphere Innermost stable circular orbit Ergosphere Penrose process Blandford—Znajek process Accretion disk Hawking radiation Gravitational lens Bondi accretion M—sigma relation Quasi-periodic oscillation Thermodynamics Immirzi parameter Schwarzschild radius Spaghettification.
Optical black hole Sonic black hole. Black holes Most massive Nearest Quasars Microquasars. Category Commons.
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